Jeffery’s (2009) report on stakeholder engagement in social development projects asserts that “meaningful engagement is characterized by a willingness to be open to change.” He identifies four changes in practice that are needed to achieve this:
- Management style: Not just seeking stakeholders out but working with them to identify who is and should be involved.
- Involvement: Not just about predicting who will get involved but encouraging stakeholders to get involved.
- Timing: Not set and imposed by the project, but the process and timing for engagement is mutually agreed.
- Attitude to change: Not protecting project boundaries but exploring and agreeing on them with the stakeholders.